Types of garbage and methods of garbage disposal
Several types of garbage do exist. Each waste has its own method of disposal. However, in the current world, different waste products are mixed at various dumping sites. This has resulted in high garbage disposal cost as the wastes need to be carefully sorted out before they are properly disposed of. The significant garbage categories include;
- Organic garbage
These are decomposable wastes from homes such as kitchen refuse, tree barks, and leaves, fruits, and vegetables from market stalls and many other decomposing food substances. They normally produce strong irritating smell because they are decaying.
- Recyclable Waste products
This includes all metallic wastes, wood, glass products and plastics. They can be recycled once they are worn out. Some of the products made from these materials include papers, food packaging bags and containers and other wood products. During disposal, the products should be placed separately for recycling.
- Special Wastes
The category of waste products that fall here normally require careful disposal. They include electronics such as TV sets, mobile phone parts, computers and many other types of electronics. This category also contains wastes from hospitals and other health institutions that handle medical products. Handling medical waste products require careful disposal to avoid any contamination. Radioactive materials and other toxic chemicals from industries and laboratories also fall in this category as they require careful and otherwise sophisticated disposal mechanisms.
Methods for garbage disposal
Waste materials should be correctly disposed of for the sake of human and environmental safety. All types of wastes have hazardous consequences to the environment and human health. Therefore all parties should join hands together to make better collective decisions concerning waste disposal. The public, government agencies, and business organizations have a role to play in ensuring correct garbage disposal measures.
Four traditional waste management methods which have been put in place for a long time include dumping, burning, recycling and preventing the creation of wastes. Here are the ways of managing wastes in the modern world.
Prevention of waste product generation
Prevention is always better than cure. There has been an unnecessary extensive use of newly generated products. It is worth noting that disposing of waste products especially the non-biodegradable waste is such a difficult and expensive venture. There is therefore need to re-use the existing products and avoid acquiring new ones when there is no need for such. This can best curb the rapid growth of wastes which is otherwise threatening the existence of people.
- Recycling any recyclable waste
The process of recycling adds value to the waste products. They can serve the same initial purpose or a different one depending on how they have been recycled. Some of the substances that can be recycled are; glass, metals, paper, and many others. However, the garbage disposal prices for this method are quite high but are an environmental friendly alternative.
- Composting method
This method basically involves organic decomposition of waste products. It is the appropriate kitchen garbage disposal method. A pit is dug and the organic garbage is dumped there and left for a long time for microbes to act on it. The resultant compost is rich in plant nutrients and can be used for organic farming to boost soil fertility. This method tends to be slow and may take a significant portion of the land.
The wastes are dumped into a landfill. This method is used to cement waste products between two protective linings to prevent the associated environmental hazards. Toxic chemicals are prevented from getting into contact with water zones and the soils. Landfills are recommended in places with low groundwater and non-flooding areas. The method is quite expensive as it requires sophisticated manpower to construct and maintain the landfills
- Incineration method
This involves the burning of wastes to convert them into base components and trap the generated energy through pyrolysis for other functions. The method is however associated with different levels of pollution depending on the product being burnt. The ashes obtained can be used for purposes of hydroponic solutions. This method is the best garbage disposal for non-recyclable and combustible waste products.
- Bio-gas digesters
The method is most recommended in the organic waste management. It involves two processes; thermophilic bio-digestion and bio-methanation. Bio-gas uses fermentation technology to produce methane gas that gives off energy. The method has been in use for many years in places such as slaughterhouses and food industries.
It involves burning of solid wastes such as plant boilers to produce energy which serves the same purpose as electricity. The method has been regarded as the best alternative to replace coal and use of firewood in large industrial activities. It provides decentralized garbage treatment facilities.
Poor handling of garbage can result in various environmental and health hazards. Open dumping of garbage exposes the surrounding communities to dangerous diseases such as cholera, asthma, bronchitis, typhoid and many other diseases. Dumping sites also attract rodents such as rats which can be a real nuisance to humans.
There is, therefore, need to put into place correct garbage disposal mechanisms. A waste disposal unit should be constructed in every community and given to a number of homesteads. Industries should also opt for the top-rated garbage disposal alternatives to protect the environment and the people. Prevention mechanisms should be highly encouraged.